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VOLUME 36, ISSUE 02

JAW-OPENING REFLEX AND MOTOR EXCITABILITY IN PRIMATE QUIET SLEEP
Jaw-Opening Reflex and Corticobulbar Motor Excitability Changes During Quiet Sleep in Non-Human Primates

http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.2388

Dongyuan Yao, MD, PhD1,2; Gilles J. Lavigne, DMD, PhD, FRCD3,4; Jye-Chang Lee, PhD2; Kazunori Adachi, DDS, PhD5; Barry J. Sessle, MDS, PhD2

1Centre for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; 4Sleep Research Center and Surgery Department, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Québec, Canada; 5Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan



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Study Objective:

To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep.

Design:

Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study.

Setting:

University sleep research laboratories.

Participants and Interventions:

The reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles was determined during the quiet awake state (QW) and quiet sleep (QS) in monkeys (n = 4).

Measurements and Results:

During QS sleep, compared to QW periods, both tongue stimulation-evoked jaw-opening reflex peak and root mean square amplitudes were significantly decreased with stimulations at 2-3.5 × thresholds (P < 0.001). The jaw-opening reflex latency during sleep was also significantly longer than during QW. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within the cortical masticatory area induced rhythmic jaw movements at a stable threshold (≤ 60 μA) during QW; but during QS, ICMS failed to induce any rhythmic jaw movements at the maximum ICMS intensity used, although sustained jaw-opening movements were evoked at significantly increased threshold (P < 0.001) in one of the monkeys. Similarly, during QW, ICMS within face primary motor cortex induced orofacial twitches at a stable threshold (≤ 35 μA), but the ICMS thresholds were elevated during QS. Soon after the animal awoke, rhythmic jaw movements and orofacial twitches could be evoked at thresholds similar to those before QS.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that the excitability of reflex and corticobulbar-evoked activity in the jaw motor system is depressed during QS.

Citation:

Yao D; Lavigne GJ; Lee JC; Adachi K; Sessle BJ. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates. SLEEP 2013;36(2):269-280.

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