VALIDATION OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO SCREEN FOR SHIFT WORK DISORDER
Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder
Laura K. Barger, PhD1,2; Rowan P. Ogeil, PhD3; Christopher L. Drake, PhD4; Conor S. O'Brien, BS1; Kim T. Ng, PhD3; Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, PhD1,2,3
1Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 2Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 3School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Australia; 4Henry Ford Hospital, Sleep Disorders and Research Center, Detroit, MI
At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population.
Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD.
18 sleep clinics in the USA.
Patients or Participants:
311 shift workers.
Measurements and Results:
Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82).
This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD.
Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703.