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VOLUME 35, ISSUE 04

SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING AND DEPRESSION AMONG U.S. ADULTS
Sleep Disordered Breathing and Depression among U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008

http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1724

Anne G. Wheaton, PhD; Geraldine S. Perry, DrPH; Daniel P. Chapman, PhD; Janet B. Croft, PhD

Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA



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Study Objective:

To determine if symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with depression symptomology in a national sample.

Design:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Setting:

U.S., 2005-2008.

Participants:

9,714 adults (≥ 18 years)

Measurements:

Respondents were asked about frequency of snoring and snorting, gasping, or stopping breathing while asleep and completed the PHQ-9 (a 9-item depression screener). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SDB symptom-associated probable major depression (defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) were obtained from sex-specific logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, age, race/ethnicity, and education.

Results:

Among men, 6.0% reported physician-diagnosed sleep apnea, 37.2% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 7.1% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 5.0% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Among women, 3.1% reported sleep apnea, 22.4% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 4.3% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 8.4% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Sleep apnea was associated with probable major depression (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 among men; OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.9 among women). Snoring was not associated with depression symptoms in men or women. Snorting/stopping breathing ≥ 5 nights/week compared to never was strongly associated with probable major depression in men (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.2) and women (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4).

Conclusion:

Frequent snorting/stopping breathing was associated with probable major depression by the PHQ-9 in a national sample of adults. Additional research may be needed to determine whether regular screening for these conditions by mental health professionals and sleep specialists should be recommended.

Citation:

Wheaton AG; Perry GS; Chapman DP; Croft JB. Sleep disordered breathing and depression among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. SLEEP 2012;35(4):461-467.

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