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VOLUME 34, ISSUE 04

PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTOR OF EDS IN YOUNG CHILDREN
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a Community Sample of Young Children: The Role of Obesity, Asthma, Anxiety/Depression, and Sleep

Susan L. Calhoun, PhD; Alexandros N. Vgontzas, MD; Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, PhD; Susan D. Mayes, PhD; Marina Tsaoussoglou, BS; Maria Basta, MD; Edward O. Bixler, PhD

Sleep Research and Treatment Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA



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Study Objectives:

We investigated the prevalence and association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with a wide range of factors (e.g., medical complaints, obesity, objective sleep [including sleep disordered breathing], and parent-reported anxiety/depression and sleep difficulties) in a large general population sample of children. Few studies have researched the prevalence and predictors of EDS in young children, none in a general population sample of children, and the results are inconsistent.

Design:

Cross-sectional

Setting:

Population -based.

Participants:

508 school-aged children from the general population.

Interventions:

N/A

Measurements and Results:

Children underwent a 9-hour polysomnogram (PSG), physical exam, and parent completed health, sleep and psychological questionnaires. Children were divided into 2 groups: those with and without parent reported EDS. The prevalence of subjective EDS was approximately 15%. Significant univariate relationships were found between children with EDS and BMI percentile, waist circumference, heartburn, asthma, and parent reported anxiety/depression, and sleep difficulties. The strongest predictors of EDS were waist circumference, asthma, and parent-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression and trouble falling asleep. All PSG sleep variables including apnea/hypopnea index, caffeine consumption, and allergies were not significantly related to EDS.

Conclusions:

It appears that the presence of EDS is more strongly associated with obesity, asthma, parent reported anxiety/depression, and trouble falling asleep than with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) or objective sleep disruption per se. Our findings suggest that children with EDS should be thoroughly assessed for anxiety/depression, nocturnal sleep difficulties, asthma, obesity, and other metabolic factors, whereas objective sleep findings may not be as clinically useful.

Citation:

Calhoun SL; Vgontzas AN; Fernandez-Mendoza J; Mayes SD; Tsaoussoglou M; Basta M; Bixler EO. Prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in a community sample of young children: the role of obesity, asthma, anxiety/depression, and sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(4):503-507.

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