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VOLUME 33, ISSUE 10

SLEEP DISTURBANCE AND WORK DISABILITY
Sleep Disturbances as a Predictor of Cause-Specific Work Disability and Delayed Return to Work

Paula Salo, PhD1; Tuula Oksanen, MD, PhD1; Børge Sivertsen, PhD2,3; Martica Hall, PhD4; Jaana Pentti, BS1; Marianna Virtanen, PhD1; Jussi Vahtera, MD, PhD1,5; Kivimäki Mika, PhD1,6

1Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; 5Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 6Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London Medical School, London, UK



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Study Objective:

To examine sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work.

Design:

Prospective observational cohort study linking survey data on sleep disturbances with records of work disability (≥ 90 days sickness absence, disability pension, or death) obtained from national registers.

Setting:

Public sector employees in Finland.

Participants:

56,732 participants (mean age 44.4 years, 80% female), who were at work and free of work disability at the study inception.

Measurements and Results:

During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, incident diagnosis-specific work disability was observed in 4,028 (7%) employees. Of those, 2,347 (60%) returned to work. Sleep disturbances 5-7 nights per week predicted work disability due to mental disorders (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.9) and diseases of the circulatory system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1), musculoskeletal system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and nervous system (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), and injuries and poisonings (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) after controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, night/shift work, health behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise), diagnosed somatic diseases, use of pain killers, depression, and anxiety. In addition, sleep disturbances prior to disability were associated with higher likelihood of not returning to work after work disability from musculoskeletal diseases (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and, in men, after work disability due to mental disorders (HR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.1).

Conclusions:

Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk for subsequent disabling mental disorders and various physical illnesses. They also predict the outcome of work disability due to musculoskeletal disorders.

Citation:

Salo P; Oksanen T; Sivertsen B; Hall M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Vahtera J; Kivimäki M. Sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1323-1331.

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