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VOLUME 28, ISSUE 08


Clinical Analyses of Sighted Patients with Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome: A Study of 57 Consecutively Diagnosed Cases

Hayakawa T; Uchiyama M; Kamei Y et al. Clinical analyses of sighted patients with non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome: a study of 57 consecutively diagnosed cases. SLEEP 2005;28(8):945-952. Tatsuro Hayakawa, MD1; Makoto Uchiyama, MD, PhD2; Yuichi Kamei, MD, PhD1; Kayo Shibui, MD, PhD2; Hirokuni Tagaya, MD, PhD2; Takashi Asada, MD, PhD3; Masako Okawa, MD, PhD4; Jujiro Urata, MD1; Kiyohisa Takahashi MD, PhD5

1Department of Psychiatry, Kohnodai Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kohnodai, Ichikawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Tsukinowacho, Otsu, Japan; 5National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Japan



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Study Objectives:

The objective of this study was to clarify the clinical features of sighted patients with non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.

Design:

Clinical analyses of consecutive patients suffering from non–24- hour sleep-wake syndrome.

Setting:

The sleep disorders clinic at Kohnodai Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.

Patients:

Fifty-seven patients who were diagnosed consecutively as having non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome between 1991 and 2001 were included in the study.

Measurements and Results:

The clinical features and sleep characteristics of the patients were analyzed. A semistructured psychiatric interview that included the criteria for Axis I or II disorders of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised was conducted, and relationships between psychiatric problems and non–24-hour sleepwake syndrome were analyzed. The patient cohort included 41 (72%) men and 16 (28%) women. The onset of non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome had occurred during the teenage years in 63% of the cohort, and the mean ( ± SD) period of the sleep–wake cycle was 24.9 ± 0.4 hours (range 24.4-26.5 hours). The mean sleep length of the patients was 9.3 ± 1.3 hours, and 44% of them had a sleep length of between 9 and 10 hours. Psychiatric disorders had preceded the onset of non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome in 16 patients (28%); of the remaining 41 patients, 14 (34%) developed major depression after the onset of non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.

Conclusions:

These results represent the first detailed clinical review of a relatively large number of sighted patients with non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.

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